Below are a number of research resources that students and researchers may find useful in their work.



These measures have been made available by Prof. Charles Carver of Miami Universty. He is one of the leading world experts on personality, emotion and self-regulation.

LOT-R (Life Orientation Test-Revised: The LOT was developed to assess individual differences in generalized optimism versus pessimism. This measure, and its successor the LOT-R, have been used in a good deal of research on the behavioral, affective, and health consequences of this personality variable.


COPE (complete version): The COPE Inventory was developed to assess a broad range of coping responses, several of which had an explicit basis in theory. The inventory includes some responses that are expected to be dysfunctional, as well as some that are expected to be functional.  It also includes at least 2 pairs of polar-opposite tendencies. These were included because each scale is unipolar (the absence of this response does not imply the presence of its opposite), and because we think people engage in a wide range of coping during a given period, including both of each pair of opposites.

Brief COPE Scale: The items below are an abbreviated version of the COPE Inventory.We have used it in research with breast cancer patients, with a community sample recovering from Hurricane Andrew, and with other samples as well.  At present, none of that work has been published, except for an article reporting the development of the Brief COPE, which includes information about factor structure and internal reliability from the hurricane sample.

BIS/BAS scales: Several theorists have argued that two general motivational systems underlie behavior. A behavioral approach system (BAS) is believed to regulate appetitive motives, in which the goal is to move toward something desired. A behavioral avoidance (or inhibition) system (BIS) is said to regulate aversive motives, in which the goal is to move away from something unpleasant.  We developed the BIS/BAS scales to assess individual differences in the sensitivity of these systems.

MAQ (Measure of Attachment Qualities): The Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ) is a measure of adult attachment patterns.  It has separate scales to assess secure attachment tendencies and avoidant tendencies, and two scales reflecting aspects of the anxious-ambivalent pattern.

MBA (Measure of Body Apperception): This is a measure of the investment in, or dependence on, one's body image as a source of the sense of self-worth.  It has two scales, which reflect reliance on physical appearance, and reliance on a sense of body intactness or integrity.

ATS (Attitudes Toward Self): This was designed to measure three potential self-regulatory vulnerabilities to depression. One of them is the holding of overly high standards, the second is the tendency to be self-critical at any failure to perform well, and the third is the tendency to generalize from a single failure to the broader sense of self-worth.  

Benefit Finding: This scale for breast cancer assesses the perception that positive contributions were made to one's life by the experience of being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer.  The original scale was developed by Vicki Helgeson at Carnegie Mellon University. We wrote a few additional items and distilled the set down a little by removing difficult and redundant items. In an intervention study, the items tended to form a single factor.  In a later study, it was found that Benefit Finding early in the cancer experience predicted better psychosocial adjustment years later.

QLACS (Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors): Many measures of quality of life (QOL) have been developed for assessment of cancer patients. Most of these measures, however, were developed for use during the period of treatment following diagnosis. Because of increasing interest in the experiences of long-term cancer survivors, we have developed a measure specifically for use with persons who are 5 or more years past their cancer diagnosis. The development of the measure began with in-depth interviews with 59 long-term survivors, followed by generation of an item pool that was further reduced to final scales by administration to another sample of 242 survivors. Five cancer-specific domains were identified (appearance concerns, financial problems, distress over recurrence, family-related distress, and benefits of cancer) along with 7 generic QOL domains (negative feelings, positive feelings, cognitive problems, sexual problems, physical pain, fatigue, and social avoidance).

MOCS (Measure of Current Status): Together with Mike Antoni and a number of other people, I have been involved for several years in research on the effects of a multi-modal cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on the psychosocial well-being of breast cancer patients. An important question is whether the intervention's beneficial effects have several sources or one principle source.  In order to probe for possible "active ingredients" behind the intervention’s effects, I developed a brief measure, which I called the Measure of Current Status, or MOCS.

SSSS (Sources of Social Support Scale): Together with Mike Antoni and a number of other people, I have been involved for several years in research on the effects of a multi-modal cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on the psychosocial well-being of breast cancer patients. In the course of this work, several questions have arisen about social support. One question is whether different sources of support matter in different ways (e.g., partner, friends, health care providers).  Another question is how different aspects of support differ.  Indeed, there is a developing literature suggesting that negative support is more impactful than positive support. Neither of these questions is new--both have been asked by other people. However, we found ourselves not entirely satisfied with how existing measures differentiated these variables from each other. We developed an item set of our own, which has now been used in at least two longitudinal studies of cancer patients (breast and prostate cancer).

WASSUP (Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unlikely Pursuits): The Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unlikely Pursuits (WASSUP) is a measure of the tendency to set implausibly high goals. This measure was developed in collaboration with my colleague Sheri Johnson, who studies bipolar disorder. This measure was intended to investigate the question of whether persons vulnerable to mania set unrealistic goals. It has seven factorially derived scales, pertaining to goals in different life domains. In several different studies using this measure we have found associations between diagnosed mania and hypomania (on the one hand) with reports of setting highly ambitious goals for popular fame (always), financial success (sometimes), and political influence (sometimes).

POG (Positive Generalization): The POG was devised to assess the tendency to generalize from one positive experience to the broader sense of self. It was modeled on the negative generalization scale of the ATS, which assesses the tendency to generalize in the opposite direction. In creating the POG we addressed three different aspects of positive generalization: Lateral generalization is the tendency to generalize to a different domain of self; Upward generalization is the tendency to generalize to higher aspects of the self; Social generalization is upward generalization in the social sphere. The POG was first used in a study reported by Eisner et al. (see below); it was slightly revised and used in another study reported by Carver and Johnson (see below). In both cases, we found that tendencies toward mania were related to greater positive generalization and that tendencies toward depression were related to greater negative generalization, but there was no crossover of generalization type to disorder tendency.

RITSS (Relationship Incentive and Threat Sensitivity Scales): The RITSS was developed to assess individual differences in incentive and threat sensitivity that are specific to the context of intimate relationships. It has been used in only a little research thus far, which has not yet been published. If you are interested in the broader BIS/BAS scales.


From the London psychometric Laboratory at UCL

Trait Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence reflects individual differences in identifying and understanding emotion in the self and others. It has been defined as ability (Mayer, et al.  2008), measuring maximal performance and also as dispositional trait, measuring typical performance (Petrides & Furnham 2001). Trait EI measure can be downloaded free.


Fast Track Measures of Development from Four USA Universities

Fast Track: This is a comprehensive 10-year intervention project designed to prevent serious antisocial behavior and related adolescent problems in three successive cohorts of children selected at being at high risk when entering first grade. The intervention is guided by a developmental theory positing the interaction of multiple influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Low-income, high crime communities place stressors and influences on children and families that increase their risk levels. In such contexts, families characterized by marital conflict and instability make consistent and effective parenting difficult to achieve, particularly with children who are impulsive and of difficult temperament. These children usually enter school poorly prepared for the social, emotional, and cognitive demands of this setting. Their parents often are unprepared to relate effectively with school staff and a poor home-school bond often exacerbates the child's adjustment problems. Often the child attends a school with a high density of other children who are similarly unprepared, and who are negatively influenced by disruptive classroom contexts and punitive teacher practices. Over time, aggressive and disruptive children are rejected by families and peers, and tend to receive less support from teachers--further exacerbating aggressive exchanges and academic difficulties. The process of escalating risk extends from elementary school years into adolescence, where peer influences, academic difficulties, and dysfunctional personal identity development can contribute to serious conduct problems and related risky behaviors. The Fast Track prevention program is thus based on the hypothesis that improving child competencies, parenting effectiveness, school context, and school-home communications will, over time, contribute to preventing antisocial behavior across the period from early childhood through adolescence.

This website has very wide range of measures that can be modified for use.



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